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道德至高点上的善意婊:通往地狱的道路是由善意铺成的

她/他/我也是出于好意,你这么计较干什么?

目录
 
1. 通往地狱的道路是由善意铺成的
 
2. (自我)正义谬误
 
3. 意外后果
 
4. 达克效应
 
5. 认知冲突
 
6.“合理化”实际上是一种防御机制
 
 
01
The Road to Hell is Paved with Good Intentions
 通往地狱的道路是由善意铺成的
 
 
 
An alternative form is "Hell is full of good meanings, but heaven is full of good works"The saying is thought to have originated with Saint Bernard of Clairvaux who wrote (c. 1150), "L'enfer est plein de bonnes volontés ou désirs" (hell is full of good wishes or desires).
 
The Road to Hell is Paved with Good Intentions (通往地狱的道路是由善意铺成的),这一谚语的另一说法是:地狱里全是善意,但天堂里却全是善举。该谚语最早源于 Saint Bernard of Clairvaux 的“地狱里满是美好的心愿和渴望)。
 
A common interpretation of the saying is that wrongdoings or evil actions are often masked by good intentions; or even that good intentions, when acted upon, may have unintended consequences.
对这句谚语通常的解读是:错误或恶行常以善意/美好意愿作为挡箭牌;甚至是,当善意/美好意愿被付诸行动时,可能会产生(不好的)意外后果。
 
Things don’t always go the way we’d like them to. Despite our good intentions, we could end up causing a lot of harm. Before you take action, you should reflect on what you’re doing, whether you can actually do it, and what consequences might result.
事情并非总是按照人们想要的方向发展。尽管我们心存好意,但最终依旧可能会造成很大伤害。在采取行动之前,应思考自己的行为,你是否真的能胜任,以及可能会导致哪些后果。
 
If you wanted to operate on a sick family member in order to save their life, you’d need more than good intentions; you’d need the proper knowledge. Otherwise, you’d end up killing them, even with your good intentions.
如果你想要给一个生病的亲属做手术,去挽救他们的性命,那你仅有善意肯定是不够的。你还需要足够的知识,否则,你就会让他们丧命,即使你心存莫大善意。
 
Even Hitler, the modern symbol of ultimate evil, had good intentions, as did his followers. Otherwise, he would not have been able to convince intelligent, educated, enlightened Europeans that the world would be a better place without Jews and other impure people like homosexuals, Gypsies, blacks and intellectually deficient people. However, his good intentions spawned the most horrific genocidal crusade in human history.
甚至希特勒,当今时代终极邪恶的标志,和他的拥护者们也都是“心存善意”,否则他也不会说服聪明、受过良好教育、思想开化的欧洲人认同他的观点,即,如果没有犹太人和其他不纯人群,如同性恋、吉普赛人、黑人或智力有缺陷之人,这个世界会更美好。但是,他的如此善意,却导致了人类历史上最骇人听闻的种族灭绝战争。
 
02
(Self-)Righteousness Fallacy
(自我)正义谬误
 
(Self-)Righteousness Fallacy: Assuming that if a person (whether self or other) has good intentions, then they have the truth or facts on their side.
 
 
 
Logical Form: You make claim X. You have good intentions. Therefore, X is true.
 
(自我)正义谬误:假设倘若一个人(无论是自己还是他人)有良好的初衷,那么他就是正确的,或他讲的就是事实。
 
 
逻辑形式:你认为X。你心存好意。因此X为真。
 
 
03
Unintended consequences
意外后果
 
 
 
Economist Adam Smith, with his "law of unintended consequences," warned us that "interventions in complex systems tend to create undesirable outcomes". 
经济学家亚当·史密斯提出了 “意外后果法则”,警示我们:“干涉复杂体系,易于造成不良结果”。
 
The theory goes that the larger the planned change in society, the greater is the probable likelihood of unforeseen and adverse outcomes. Substantial evidence was gathered to back up this theory in the 20th century by American sociologist Robert K. Merton.
该理论认为,对社会计划开展的变革越大,不可预见的负面结果出现的可能性就越大。20世纪,美国社会学家Robert K. Merton 为这一理论提供了切实证据。
 
In the social sciences, unintended consequences (sometimes unanticipated consequences or unforeseen consequences) are outcomes that are not the ones foreseen and intended by a purposeful action. The term was popularised in the twentieth century by American sociologist Robert K. Merton.
 
在社会科学中,意外后果(有时被称为不可预料的后果或未预见的后果)是指一项刻意开展的行为所导致的未预见到的、并非本意的后果。美国社会学家 Robert K. Merton 在20世纪普及了这一词汇。
 
Unintended consequences can be grouped into three types:
意外后果可分三类:
 
 
Unexpected benefit: also referred to as luck, serendipity or a windfall.
 
意外收益:也被称为好运、小确幸、意外收获
 
Unexpected drawback: An unexpected detriment occurring in addition to the desired effect.
 
意外弊端:除理想结果外,还出现了未预料到的损害。
 
Perverse result: A perverse effect contrary to what was originally intended (when an intended solution makes a problem worse).
 
相反结果:结果事与愿违(计划的解决方案导致问题恶化)。
 
 
 
Causes/原因
 
 
Possible causes of unintended consequences include the world's inherent complexity , perverse incentives, human stupidity, self-deception, failure to account for human nature, or other cognitive or emotional biases. As a sub-component of complexity (in the scientific sense), the chaotic nature of the universe—and especially its quality of having small, apparently insignificant changes with far-reaching effects (e.g., the butterfly effect)—applies.
意外后果发生的原因包括:世界本质上上复杂性、事与愿违的激励措施、人类的愚蠢、自我欺骗、未能考虑到人性或其他认知/情感偏见。作为世界复杂性的一个子成分,宇宙的无序本质——尤其是看起来微不足道的变化会导致深远的影响(即蝴蝶效应)——也适用。
 
Robert K. Merton listed five possible causes of unanticipated consequences in 1936:
Robert K. Merton 于 1936年列出了意外后果的5种可能原因:
 
 
 
1
Ignorance, making it impossible to anticipate everything, thereby leading to incomplete analysis.
 
无知。因此无法预测任何事情,因此会导致分析不全面。
 
 
 
2
Errors in analysis of the problem or following habits that worked in the past but may not apply to the current situation.
 
对问题错误分析,或遵循一些过去曾奏效但可能不适用于当前情形的习惯。
 
 
 
3
 Immediate interests overriding long-term interests.
 
注重眼前利益,忽视长期利益。
 
 
 
4
Basic values which may require or prohibit certain actions even if the long-term result might be unfavourable (these long-term consequences may eventually cause changes in basic values).
 
基础价值观。这些价值观可能要求或禁止人们做一些事情,即使会导致不良的长期后果。(这些长期后果可能最终会导致这些基本价值观被改变)
 
 
 
5
Self-defeating prophecy, or, the fear of some consequence which drives people to find solutions before the problem occurs, thus the non-occurrence of the problem is not anticipated.
 
自我挫败的预言,或因为惧怕出现某种后果,因此人们在问题出现之前就提前找到了解决方案。因此未预料到问题没出现。
 
 
 
In addition to Merton's causes, psychologist Stuart Vyse has noted that groupthink has been blamed for some decisions that result in unintended consequences.
 
除了上述原因,心理学家 Stuart Vyse 指出,集体思维(从众心理)也被诟病是导致一些决策发生意外后果的原因。 
 
 
 
04
The Dunning-Kruger effect
达克效应
 
 
 
Less competent people have a tendency to believe that they know more than they actually do. Well-informed people usually have very low confidence in their own views, because they know enough to realize how complicated the world is. People that are not well informed are extremely confident that their views are correct, because they haven’t learned enough to see the problems with those views. This is what Socrates meant when he said that true wisdom was “to know that I know nothing.”
达克效应——能力较低的人常常夜郎自大误以为他们懂得很多。而学识丰富的人通常对自己的观点并不是很有自信,因为他们见多识广,知道这个世界有多么复杂。而学识浅薄者则对自己的观点极度自信,因为他们还没有足够的学识让他们意识到去用其他视角看待问题。这也正是苏格拉底的名言“我唯一所知,就是我一无所知”的真谛所在。
 
The same thing can happen with the actions we take or the advice we give to others with their best interests in mind. People who start a business on the basis of nothing but good intentions, without the proper knowledge, are generally just sealing their unfortunate fate.
当我们从对方最大利益出发而行动或提供建议时,达克效应也同样可能发生。比如有些人要创业,但除了满腔美好意愿之外别无其他,没有足够的知识信息,那么通常就注定了他们不幸的命运。
 
If good intentions aren’t supported by necessary knowledge, they can be dangerous. The decisions you make can affect both yourself and the people you love, and even if you don’t mean to hurt them, you still could.
如果善意没有必要知识的支持,就可能会变得很危险。你做的决定可能会影响到你和你爱的人,即使你并没有想伤害他们,但你依旧可能会。
 
 
 
05
Cognitive Dissonance
认知冲突
 
All of us justify our actions to ourselves. It is human nature to do so.
我们所有人都会合理化自己的行为。这是我们的本性。
 
There is a particular weakness in human psychology when it comes to our goals and dreams. We use magical thinking (characterized by the belief that thinking or wishing something can cause it to occur.)and confirmation bias in the following way: We set ourselves an idealistic or ambitious goal that will make us feel good about ourselves - say, for example, attempting to grow tomato plants in a cold climate. 
人类在目标和梦想方面,在心理上有一种特别的缺陷,即,我们会有神奇思维(典型的想法就是:觉得只要想某样事物或希望某样事物发生,那它就会发生)和确认偏见,具体而言:我们会设定一个理想化的或宏伟远大的目标,这一目标让我们自我感觉特别好。比如说:试图在寒冷气候区域种番茄。
 
We make ourselves believe that by sheer force of will power, positive thinking, faith, love and perseverance, the plants will grow. But when they wither and die, we either pretend to ourselves that they grew quite well, or we blame some other factor and depict it as malevolent (the local cats, an unexpected storm). The last thing we want to do is examine our initial intentions, because they may turn out to have been ill-planned or even foolish.
我们让自己相信,纯粹凭借意志、积极思维、信念、爱和毅力,植物就能生长。但当它们枯萎或死掉时,我们要么是欺骗自己假装它们长得很好,要么我们归咎于其他因素,把它们描述成不利因素,如当地的猫科动物、意外的暴风雨等)。我们都尽力避免去审视我们最初的意愿,因为这可能会让我们发现这些意愿规划不当或甚至愚蠢不堪。
 
We then experience cognitive dissonance; The cognitive dissonance effect explains that having contradicting thoughts, such as “I think that I do good things for other people” and “people often tell me that what I do can be harmful,” creates a feeling of mental discomfort leading to an alteration in one of the attitudes, beliefs or behaviors to reduce the discomfort and restore balance.
之后,我们就会经历一种叫“认知冲突”的现象。认知冲突是指,一个人同时持有两种相互冲突的想法。比如:
 
“我认为我为人们做的都是好事”
 
“人们经常告诉我我做的事情可能是有害的”
 
这就会导致一种心理上的不适,人们必须更改其中一种态度、理念或行为,来减少这种不适感,重新恢复平衡。
 
We feel emotional distress at having failed at out own values, so to get rid of that horrible feeling we create rationalisations after-the-fact that justify what we have done. We tell ourselves that even though, the results weren’t quite perfect, trying to grow tomato plants in a cold and barren land, is still a beautiful ideal. 
当我们的价值观最后失败时,我们情绪上会感到痛苦。因此为了摆脱这种糟糕的感受,我们在事后会制造种种借口理由来让自己的行为合理化。我们告诉自己,即使结果不尽人意,但在寒冷贫瘠的区域种植番茄依旧是一个美好的理想。
 
Then, we hide all the evidence of failure. We might even feel ashamed after telling all of our neighbours about our great plan, and so we lie and tell everyone the plants grew brilliantly.
之后,我们会隐藏起所有失败的证据。我们已经给邻居讲过了我们这一美好理想,现在我们可能感到羞耻。因此我们选择撒谎,告诉每个人那些番茄长得非常好。 
 
When cognitive dissonance is added to the Dunning-Kruger effect, the results can be destructive. There’s nothing more dangerous than an ignorant person who thinks they’re capable of any achievement, but who refuses to see any other perspectives than their own.
当认知冲突遇到达克效应,结果可能是毁灭性的。没有什么是比一个自认为无所不能、愚蠢无知,却又拒绝接受其他任何视角的人更危险的了。
 
 
 
06
Rationalization is actually a defense mechanisim
“合理化”实际上是一种防御机制
 
We all have thoughts, feelings, and memories that can be difficult to deal with. In some cases, people deal with such feelings by utilizing what are known as defense mechanisms. These defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological responses that protect people from threats and things that they don't want to think about or deal with.
我们都会有一些难以应对的想法、感受和记忆。有时候人们会用“防御机制”来面对上述感受。这些防御机制是一些无意识的心理反应,用来让人们逃避那些他们不愿去想、不愿应对的威胁和事物。
 
Rationalization is putting something into a different light or offering a different explanation for one’s perceptions or behaviors in the face of a changing reality. For instance, a woman who starts dating a man she really, really likes and thinks the world of is suddenly dumped by the man for no reason. She reframes the situation in her mind with, “I suspected he was a loser all along.”
合理化,是指当实际情况发生变化时,通过另一种视角去看待,或为自己的认知或行为提供一种不同的解释。例如,一位女士开始与一位男士约会,她真的真的很喜欢他,倾慕不已,但却突然毫无原因地被甩了。她在自己大脑中为这一情形重新设定了故事框架:“我怀疑他其实一直都是个屌丝。”
 
You can overcome the need for this defense mechanism by not needing excuses, or being able to “handle the truth.” You may have failed at something, forgotten an important task, or been late, but rather than make up endless reasons to exonerate yourself, accept the fact that once in a while, even good people do something bad.
你可以抛开借口,或直面真相,这样就能够克服这一防御机制。
 
你可能在某件事上失败了、忘记了一项重要任务,或迟到了,但你不是去编造无休无止的理由来推脱,而是接受这样一个事实:即使是好人,偶尔也会犯错。
 
One of the most ambitious pieces of society-wide utopian planning was Chinese Communist leader Chairman Mao’s "Four Pests Project" in The Great Leap Forward(1958-62). It was intended to eradicate mosquitoes, flies, rats and above all sparrows from China, destroying all the parasitic creatures that diminished the rice crops. But after the populace killed 23 million birds, something unanticipated occurred: swarms of beetles emerged, then locusts, slugs and all of the smaller crop-eating insects that the birds would have eaten. This massive ecological imbalance contributed considerably to the Great Chinese Famine of 1958-61. In one county, Guangshan, one-third of the population died from starvation, while the total national death toll from starvation was 20-45 million people. Mao Zedong's communist party had to then hide the evidence of mass starvation, and then, in the next year to import more birds from the Soviet Union. With the magical thinking, made of the union between guilty conscience, reality denial, and self-deception, the communist party declared the Great Leap Forward to have been a huge success, with the suppression of anyone who had evidence that proved otherwise. Good intentions prevailed again.
 
<此段不敢看懂>
 
 
 
Although most people have good intentions, remember that sometimes they’re not enough. Reflecting before you act and obtaining an expert opinion can be more beneficial than letting yourself be guided by beautiful, seductive, dangerous words.
尽管大多数人都心存美好意愿,但记住,有时候仅凭这些是不够的。在行动之前,谨慎思考,寻求专家意见,这要比一味跟随假大空的美好诱人意愿要有益得多。
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